“Glass-blowing” is a method which has not changed a lot since its advent. In the simplest words it involves a glassmaker coming inside the tube in order to shape a glass object in the appropriate shape. What is significant in the look of products from Murano glassworks is that their magnificent appearance and colours are achieved due to special addition to the glass mixture. For example, adding sandton glass gold or silver foil to the glass mixture will produce beautifully glistening flower vases or bowls. When a glassmaker adds zinc, the glass will appear to be white; when adding cobalt, the product will have a sea deep blue tone; when mixing in manganese, the item will be violet. After the product is finished, a glassmaker places it in an your oven called “tempera” in order to cool it down.
Below, you will find a short description of various techniques employed by glassmakers on Murano Island.
The technique was discovered in Murano in the early 17th century and its application allows a tinted glass item to show the effect of colour change when tilted. The legend says that avventurina glass was invented accidentally when cooper filling was built by a Murano glassmaker into the glass he was working on. The glass is achieved through adding metal components such as cooper or chrome which are slowly crystallized out of the molten glass. It makes the glass object beautifully shimmering. The word avventurina comes from the German word “ventura” which means fortune or chance.
Bubbles in the glass occur either because this is an plan of a glassmaker or as an accident due to incorrectly used technique or a glassmaker not having enough experience in this field. Hand-made products will have a few bubbles in it. Bullicate is a technique which is used in combination with plan of fabricating a regular pattern of consistently spread out air bubbles. The bubbles can be larger or smaller. Single bubbles are pushed into molten glass with a raise making a sphere looks silvered when the glass cools. It was widely found in the 1950s.
The technique was invented in the 15th century on the Murano Island however shortly after the formula for this kind of glass was lost for many years. The main characteristic of the calcedonio glass is visibility of polychromatic problematic veins which explain to you the dark-coloured glass. As a result, by mixing various metal compounds in a certain fashion, the appearance imitating natural rocks, such as chalcedony, agate or malachite is achieved. The common metals used in this system are silver and vitamin oxides, such as copper mineral, iron, or manganese, melted with opaline glass.
Cameo glass is a unique luxury form of glass art. It involves fusing two layers of different colour glass and later etching and carving the thing to make a design. The most famous forms of cameo glass present white opaque glass figures and motifs on a dark tinted background. Some of the objects may also be carved in a manner to reveal portions of the underlying colours. This system was employed by ancient Romans in 30BC, and was particularly popular among British artists in early the twentieth century.
Cristallo, invented in 1450 in Venice by a master of glass, Angelo Borovier, is famous for being first truly clear glass, totally clear, without any yellow or greenish color from iron oxide pollutants. It is achieved by bleaching glass mixture with help of manganese or other de-colorants.
Fenicio was utilized on glass even in the 200s AD, and at the end of the 17th century it was put into practice by Murano glassmakers. It involves a glassworker to wrap the incandescent glass strings with a thin pontil and to clean the strings with a simply hooked tool when the object is still hot. After the strings are combined into a single bit of glass, the glassmaker defines decoration which reminds festoons or feathers.
The filigrana technique was invented in the 1500s. Its final products are pieces which have an opaque white or tinted core. The technique involves using glass fishing rods fused together, then lost and processed by the glassmaker. There are three patterns which are produced when utilizing the filigrana technique. These are: mezza filigrana (single filament rods), reticello (diamond pattern where the strings cross and form a grid which is created as a result of turning two halves of a glass piece in opposite directions during heating) and retortoli (two filaments sprained into a control shape and not crossing).
GHIACCIO (ICE GLASS)
Popular in the 16th to 18th century, the technique involves immersing still hot glass object in cold water. It leads to creation of a glass item which appears dinged on its surface, similar to crocked ice. After immersion in cold water, the crackles are covered with another layer of glass.
Incalmo glass was produced for the first time in the 16th century when German glassmakers looked for a technique which will enable them to make glass objects with two or three different tinted chapters of glass looking like it was one piece. Many different tinted glass pieces are fused together when the glass is still flexible to form a single piece.
LATTIMO (MILK GLASS)
German glassmakers have been using this technique since the 15th century. The main objective was to produce opaque white glass which will copy popular then fine china.
This is the ancient technique which used for the first time in Egypt between the third and 1st century BC and is still used by Murano glassmakers. It involves using thin chapters of glass fishing rods which are fused together, lost and then formed to create shapes, often in floral or geometric designs.
Invented in 1930s in Murano, the Sommerso technique allows to create objects with a layered appearance where on tinted layer of glass is covered by another one of different colour. This kind of effect is established by using layers of glass formed by dimming the glass object into molten glass of another colour.